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The Hwang Ho or Yellow River is the second longest river in China. It is said that the different city-states living in the land areas surrounding this river is where the country's civilization began. However, in the written history of the country, the founding of The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty is considered the official beginning of the country. Philosophy and Literature only developed throughout the Zhou Dynasty. Chinese writing also evolved to a modern style during this dynasty. When the dynasty broke into several smaller states, the Warring States period began. Only in 221 BCE did the warring countries united again through the efforts of Qin Shi Huang, the king of the State of Qin. The union of the various states resulted to the first Chinese empire. Subsequent to the first empire are different dynasties that developed the bureaucratic system, which allowed the Emperor of China direct and entire control of the country.
From the very day the first empire was established to the end of the nineteenth century, China kept to the old order. Any kind of disagreement to the ways of this order was considered a crime. In 1911, after the failure of the government- proposed reforms, people revolted with the belief that erecting a new patterned order is the only solution to the nation's growing problems. This ushered in the changes which made China the republic that people know of today.